Venture Grants

Following Andrew Carnegie’s founding encouragement of liberal discovery-driven research, the Carnegie Institution for Science offers its scientists a new resource for pursuing bold ideas.

Carnegie Science Venture grants are internal awards of up to $100,000 that are intended to foster entirely new directions of research by teams of scientists that ignore departmental boundaries. Up to six adventurous investigations may be funded each year. The period of the award is two years, with a starting date within three months of the announcement of the selected projects.

Awards will be distributed twice yearly following the proposal and review process, typically in April and October.

Key dates for upcoming cycle:

4 May 2018

Proposals due

Mid-summer 2018 Announcement of awards

Proposals will be confidential and will be seen only by the review panel and Headquarters staff in Development. Unless the scientists state a preference otherwise on their cover page, these proposals will be shared with the Development department after the review panel, for potential efforts to raise funds for the projects.


Explore the Funded Projects

2017-B

Detecting Signs of Life

Astronomer Andrew McWilliam of the Observatories has teamed up with Hubble Postdoctoral Fellow Johanna Teske of Terrestrial Magnetism to detect molecules important to the emergence of life on Earth-sized exoplanets. A priority target is TRAPPIST-1 system, with seven Earth-sized planets. They will analyze light transmitted through these exoplanet atmospheres as the planets move in front of their host stars, searching for the faint molecular fingerprints of species like water, carbon dioxide, and methane. The researchers will work with the world-class instrumentation team at Observatories to adapt a new, high-resolution near-infrared spectrograph, from the University of Tokyo, to be deployed on the Magellan-Clay telescope, and develop custom reduction and analysis tools for exo-atmospheric detection. 


A priority target for detecting molecules essential to life is the TRAPPIST-1 system (left, artist’s concept). It has seven Earth-sized planets, and three of them are in the habitable zone, where temperatures permit liquid water to occur on the surface. Image courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech/R. Hurt, T. Pyle (IPAC)

 

 

Measuring Photosynthesis At Large Scales

A second grant was awarded to a collaboration among instrument designer Nick Konidaris of the Observatories and global ecologists Greg Asner, Joe Berry and Ari Kornfeld, to disentangle the faint light emitted by chlorophyll during photosynthesis from the much brighter sunlight reflected off the plant surface. This remote sensing technique, called Solar Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence (SIF), can be used in ​applications​ ​from​ ​precision​ ​farming,​ ​to​ ​forestry,​ ​to​ ​ understanding and​ ​predicting​ ​global​ ​climate​ ​change.​ These methods can also be used to study low-surface-brightness features in nearby galaxies thereby advancing both ecological and astronomical studies. As a first step in advancing these two fields, a SIF instrument will be incorporated into the Carnegie Airborne Observatory to allow measurements of photosynthesis to be coupled with structural characteristics in unprecedented detail.

The image at left shows chlorophyll fluorescence from photosynthesis at the molecular level. The Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO) can render height maps of forests, as in the image at right. Red in this image indicates the tallest plants. The team will use the remote sensing technique called Solar Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence (SIF) to measure photosynthesis, coupled with structural characteristics from the CAO in unprecedented detail at large scales.

 

A "Gene Gun" for Genetic Manipulation

A third Venture Grant was awarded to a project planned by plant biologists Zhiyong Wang and global ecologists Joe Berry and Jennifer Johnson, with Karlheinz Merkle of Stanford University to develop a new “gene gun” that can deliver biomolecules deep into plant cells that then participate in reproduction for the purpose of genetic manipulation. The new tool would be much quicker and more effective than current methods and could break a time-consuming bottleneck in plant research and biotechnology.

The researchers will use the maize plant, shown at left under greenhouse lighting, to inject biomolecules deep into plant cells with their new “gene gun” for genetic manipulation.

 

 

Materials Science Applied to Biological Protein Folding 

A fourth grant will go to a team that includes materials physicists at the Geophysical Laboratory Tim Strobel, Ron Cohen and Li Zhu, in collaboration with Plant Biology’s Proteomics Facility Director Shouling Xu. The team will apply their new computational method designed to understand materials synthesis to the biological problem of understanding the mechanisms of protein folding, which is vital to life. Misfolded proteins are believed to lead to many diseases. The team hopes to help bridge the gap between known protein sequences and protein structures.

 

This image is an example of a modeled biological protein fold using techniques from materials science. Like an activated phase transition—such as graphite to diamond—in any solid-state material, proteins fold by changing configuration with associated energy penalties and benefits.

2017-A

Astrophysical Data Extraction
For decades, astronomers have taken 2­-dimensional images through filters to try to understand the processes inside galaxies such as the ages of stars and whether they host black holes. But the image information is limited. To determine more detailed information on galaxies, such as their motions, finer frequency information is needed.
Juna Kollmeier and Guillermo Blanc of the Observatories will use new mathematical techniques to interrogate data from Integral Field Unit Spectrometers (IFU). These instruments take spectra at multiple locations within a target such as a distant galaxy. The “data cubes” from these instruments are extraordinarily rich and complex and the team will be applying algorithms developed in mathematics and computer science to extract features and remove noise from these astrophysical data.
The researchers learned of the method during a visit to the Scientific Computing and Imaging Institute (SCI) at the University of Utah, where Bei Wang Phillips and collaborator Paul Rosen have been working to analyze similar data cubes taken at radio frequencies with the ALMA telescope in Chile. These techniques are only accessible to the Carnegie researchers via collaboration with SCI. They hope this is the beginning of an exciting joint venture with SCI on theoretical and observational data analysis. The funds will support a student to work closely with the team to apply the new mathematical techniques to optical spectroscopic data.
Below: The images show a 2-dimensional observation ([a], left image), which could be rendered as a 2-D projection of a 3-D structure with much finer resolution using the new mathematical technique ([b], right image).
New Experiments to Model Mars’s Thermal Evolution
The rate at which a planet loses heat determines its internal structure and its geologic activity. Compared to Earth, the geologic activity on the Moon and Mars stopped long ago as did Mars’ magnetic field, probably from an abrupt decrease of heat flow. To understand what happened to Mars requires information on its interior structure and the mechanism and rate of the cooling. Thus far, such information is insufficient.
Modeling planetary dynamics requires the knowledge of surface heat flux, which is highly uncertain at high pressure and temperature conditions of the mantle and core. Alex Goncharov of the Geophysical Laboratory and Peter van Keken of the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism will use their Carnegie Science Venture grant to measure olivine, the dominant Martian mantle mineral at high pressure and temperature using a novel technique. They will use the results to develop thermal evolution models for Mars.
The new technique is a flash-heating method. A sample is compressed in a diamond anvil cell then continuously heated from both sides by an infrared laser to a stable temperature. Then, a second infrared laser delivers a pulse to one side of the sample generating a thermal disturbance. This innovation will enable the most accurate experimental measurements of thermal conductivity to date.
They will then create 3-D thermal evolution models of the Moon and Mars. NASA will launch the InSight mission to Mars in May, 2018, providing the first seismic and surface heat flux data. The subsequent Carnegie model will incorporate InSight seismic results and surface heat flow measurements. This award will support a new GL-DTM postdoc and contribute to regular diamond replacements and to the team’s travel budget.
Below: The schematic below shows the flash-heating diamond anvil cell method. 

2016-B

Direct Shock Compression of Pre-synthesized Mantle Mineral to Super-Earth Interior Conditions

Yingwei Fei, a high-pressure experimentalist at the Geophysical Laboratory, and Peter Driscoll, theoretical geophysicist in the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, have been awarded a Carnegie Science Venture Grant for their project “Direct Shock Compression of Pre-synthesized Mantle Mineral to Super-Earth Interior Conditions.”The project is an entirely new approach to investigate the properties and dynamics of super-Earths—extrasolar planets with masses between one and 10 times that of Earth. They will use the world’s most powerful magnetic, pulsed-power radiation source, called the Z Machine at Sandia National Laboratory, to generate shock waves that can simulate the intense pressure conditions of these enormous bodies. Reaching such high pressures has not been possible before with conventional techniques. The results will be used to develop models and predictions of super-Earth interiors.  Below, Fei and Driscoll are in the lab. The Z Machine is at right. Z Machine Image courtesy Sandia Lab

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2016-A

Coral calcification and the future of reefsArt Grossman of Plant Biology is teaming up with Global Ecology’s Rebecca Albright, Ken Caldeira and others to develop a new model for understanding how coral calcification works at the cellular/molecular and community levels. This blends fieldwork with understanding the molecular mechanisms that coral use to remove calcium and inorganic carbon from the seawater for calcification.  The objective is to create a model to understand how the system is affected by climate change in the face of the growing global coral reef demise. The team will collaborate with the California Academy of Sciences to build a laboratory-based coral model system and focus on the critical larval and metamorphosis period to look at the DNA, RNA and proteins involved when cells begin to calcify. There is also the potential for a biomedical spin-off including the generation of bone material for grafting.  

Far left image below: Healthy coral reefs like this example in the Great Barrier Reef are under severe attack worldwide. The Grossman,/Albright/Caldeira  team will develop a new model for understanding how coral calcification works at the cellular/molecular and community level to understand how the system is affected by climate change. Image courtesy David Kline

How do plants sense temperature and time their flowering?—This team will investigate the molecular mechanisms that control how plants sense temperature changes. Temperature changes affect carbon fixation, development, the timing of flowering, and more. The timing of flowering is particularly important with global temperature rise. Embryology’s Yixian Zheng’s lab recently looked at how a protein whose transition into a liquid state at physiological temperature promoted a cell division process. That protein, BuGZ, belongs to a protein class called intrinsically disordered proteins and is similar to a protein called SUF4 involved in regulating flowering in plants. She is teaming up with David Ehrhardt’s lab in Plant Biology lab to determine if a similar temperature-dependent “phase transition” of SUF4 is required to regulate the flowering process. The Zheng and Ehrhardt labs will tag the protein to observe SUF4 behavior. It is uses temperature-dependent phase transition to regulate the flowering process, it would establish a new paradigm for temperature sensing in biological systems.

Middle two images below: Embryology’s Yixian Zheng’s lab recently looked at how a protein, whose temperature-dependent transition into a liquid droplet state promoted a cell division process. That protein, BuGZ is shown in droplet form (second from left). She is teaming up with Dave Ehrhardt at Plant Biology to see if this transition to a liquid droplet state in a similar protein, SUF4, is involved in the flowering process in the model plant Arabidopsis ( third image from left) .

C-MOOR: The Carnegie Massive Open Online Research Platform—This grant will establish C-MOOR (pronounced “See More!”), an internet resource that allows select Carnegie data sets to be easily accessed and analyzed by citizen scientists. Frederick Tan and Zehra Nizami of Embryology are teaming up with Terrestrial Magnetism’s Alan Boss, Sergio Dieterich and Johanna Teske (also with the Observatories) to combine Carnegie’s experience in cell, molecular, and computational biology expertise with astronomical and astrophysical observations and programming experience. Other like-minded Carnegie researchers are invited to help establish a community website with tutorials, discussion forums, an “Ask a Scientist” query portal, and other engaging features. This platform targets users seeking course credit, scouting, or merit badges as well as those driven by sheer curiosity. 

Top right image below: Most astronomical objects are known only as coordinate and brightness entries in astronomical catalogs. These catalogs have hundreds of millions of entries and the vast majority of them remain unstudied or even unnoticed by scientists. By partnering with citizen scientists to sift through these data we hope to learn more about stars both as individual objects and as a population. This image exemplifies the fact that for every star we study closely, in this case Luhman 16 at the center of the image (number 42), there are countless others that remain as mere numbers in a catalog. Could astronomical secrets be hiding in plain sight in images such as this one? C-MOOR will address this and other questions with the help of citizen scientists.

Bottom right image below: Many of the modifications that occur in our genome are biased towards specific subsets of the 3 billion basepairs that form the fundamental building block of DNA. In this image, red regions represent changes in one type of modification, DNA methylation, that may alter the activity of nearby genes and transposable elements—segments of DNA that jump around—during mouse sperm development.  Carnegie scientists are interested in understanding what predisposes particular regions of the genome to these and other changes. This vast array of information and more can be sifted through by the citizen scientists participating in C-MOOR. Image courtesy of Valeriya Gaysinskaya and Alex Bortvin.

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2015

SWEET Transporters in Zebrafish
Steven Farber (Dept. of Embryology), Wolf Frommer (Dept. of Plant Biology)
Sugar homeostasis is critical for health – both under- and oversupply cause cellular and organismal damage. The Farber Lab from Carnegie’s Embryology and the Frommer lab from Carnegie’s Plant Biology have joined forces to better understand the regulation of sugar transport in the vertebrate intestine.  A novel sugar transporter discovered in plants (SLC50A; SWEET1) influences plant sugar transport, including plant vein loading, seed filling, gametophyte nutrition and nectar secretion.  Interestingly, SWEET1 is also present in vertebrates and has been shown to transport glucose although we know very little about its specific roles in digestive organs like the intestine.  Here we intend to establish the basis for understanding the role of SWEETs in humans by exploring the role and function of the single zebrafish version of SWEET1. Why are we performing this study in zebrafish?  Because the larval zebrafish is optically clear, so we can deploy fluorescent biosensors, developed in the Frommer lab, that measure sugar levels by changing their fluorescent properties.  The Farber lab has perfected ways of imaging the transport of another key nutrient (lipids) in single zebrafish intestinal cells so with these Frommer lab sensors they can more easily apply these same methods to the study of sugar transport. Currently, it is not possible to study subcellular nutrient transport inside a live digestive organ in a mammal like a mouse or human. We will use state-of-the-art genomic editing to create zebrafish with broken SWEET1 transporters (mutants) and study their phenotype and physiology with the help of theses glucose biosensors. It is our belief that the data from our studies will be relevant in the context of human nutrition, as well as diseases states such as Diabetes.


Carbon Isotope Ratio of Earth's Mantle
Erik Hauri (Dept. of Terrestrial Magnetism), Anat Shahar (Geophysical Laboratory), Stephen Elardo (Geophysical Laboratory)
Traditionally, carbon isotopes have been used to trace the movement and cycling of carbon between the atmosphere, oceans, and shallow subsurface environments. As high temperatures cause a decrease in equilibrium stable isotope fractionation, it was assumed for decades that carbon isotope fractionation in deep Earth conditions would be negligible. However, this may not be true.The silicate Earth has a carbon isotope signature that is quite different from those of meteorites, and other planetary and asteroidal bodies. However, it is thought that Earth, Mars, and the asteroids all received their volatiles, including carbon, from a similar source. So why is Earth’s carbon isotope ratio so different? Is it plausible that core formation, the single largest physical and chemical event in Earth’s history, could change the carbon isotopic signature of the entire planet? And if so, what would that mean for the composition of the core?We will try to understand this paradox by testing whether the differentiation of Earth’s core from mantle could have been accompanied by a significant shift in the carbon isotopic signature of the mantle by: 1. Determining the carbon isotopic fractionation factor between metal and silicate at high pressure and temperature for the first time, and 2. Placing an independent constraint on the amount of carbon in the Earth’s core.

Mapping Coral Bleaching
Greg Asner, Ken Caldeira, Rebecca Albright, Robin Martin (Dept. of Global Ecology)
Despite covering less than 0.1% of the world’s oceans, coral reefs harbor one of the most diverse ecosystems on the planet and are valued at ~$30 billion per year. Coral bleaching, a phenomenon whereby warmer-than-normal ocean temperatures stress corals causing them to expel the symbiotic algae living in their tissues, is one of the largest and most pervasive threats to coral reefs. In October, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association (NOAA) declared the third ever global bleaching event; the epicenter of this event is Hawaii, which is currently experiencing record-breaking bleaching due to ocean warming associated with El Niño conditions. To document the extent of this bleaching event, the Asner and Caldeira labs are joining forces in an exciting new project to apply cutting edge remote sensing techniques to the marine environment. Asner is an expert in ecological remote sensing and has been conducting research in Hawaii for over 20 years. Caldeira is a climate scientist who has been researching the impacts of climate change on coral reefs for nearly two decades. This partnership represents an exciting new direction that promises to unfold relationships between ocean warming and coral stress, providing scientifically robust information to inform decision-makers and guide conservation-management. 

Guidelines

Requirements:

Please address the following questions in your proposal (2 pages maximum after the cover page, 1-inch margins, at least 11-point font):

  • What question does this work aim to address, and why is it important?
  • Why are this team and this approach well suited to investigate this question? How does the project differ from prior work, on this topic and by the participating scientists?
  • What is the potential for discovery or technological innovation with the work proposed?
  • What does the team expect to be the greatest challenges? How will the team measure success?
  • What critical resources would this award enable? Describe the budget.

Review process:

The review panel will consist of representatives from each department along with members of the Board of Trustees, and Science Deputy Margaret Moerchen will serve as chair.

Reporting:

Award recipients will report on their progress at the halfway mark, i.e., after one year, and at the conclusion of the project period. The lifetime of the award begins at the first expenditure. No-cost extensions are possible if approval is sought more than six months before the end of the project period.

Eligibility:

Proposals should be led by at least one Carnegie staff scientist. Teams that include staff from more than one department are encouraged but not required. Collaborations with scientists from outside the Carnegie Institution for Science are fully eligible for these awards. However, the awarded funds may not provide direct support to other institutes (e.g., funds may not support a faculty salary at another institution or the purchase of an instrument that will not ultimately reside at Carnegie; a joint studentship or postdoc is an example of an expense that could be supported).

Criteria:

In reviewing proposals, the panel will consider the following potential strengths and weaknesses. These lists also reflect the discussions of the inaugural panel and their subsequent rankings. Representative comments similar to those made by the panel are given in italics.

What qualities strengthen a proposal?:

High scientific quality

Creativity

Demonstration that the problem to be pursued is an important one

    (“I knew nothing about this field before this, but this proposal inspired me to read up on it, and I’m now convinced this is a key issue”)

Cooperative interdisciplinary approaches

     (“Wouldn’t have thought of pairing these scientists up, but for this project it makes perfect sense”)

Innovative techniques or instrumentation

     (“No one has done anything like this before and it’s within our reach”)

Making a clear distinction between the proposed work and past work

     (“This person is in my department, and while it aims at a question they work on now, this is a totally different approach”)

Potential for discovery and/or technical advances

     (“If this worked, it would revolutionize the field”)

Teams that include an unusual combination of skills, whether bridging labs or departments

     (“The two labs involved are indeed in the same department, but their work is night and day”)

     (“This is a great synergy between departments X and Y; can we make more of these connections in the institution?”)

Realistic scale of project for the funds available

What qualities weaken a proposal?:

Direct extensions of prior work

     (“Proposer is excellent at this work, and this seems like more of the same”)

Teams that reflect already existing collaborations

     (“This standard team will likely do this whether they receive this funding or not”)

Unclear goals OR unclear paths to discovery

     (“So many free parameters that it’s not clear how degeneracy will be broken”)

Lack of exciting concept

     (“This is work worth doing, but it’s not appropriate for this call”)

Too large a project scale for the funding requested

     (“It’s hard to imagine even starting to make headway on this in less than two years”)

High dependency on people outside Carnegie

     (“It seems like most of the work will be done at a remote site and will only be directed from afar by the Carnegie staff scientists”)

Funds may be used for the following:

Explore Carnegie Science

Artist’s impression of Barnard’s Star planet under the orange tinted light from the star.  Credit: IEEC/Science-Wave - Guillem Ramisa
November 14, 2018

Washington, DC—An international team including five Carnegie astronomers has discovered a frozen Super-Earth orbiting Barnard’s star, the closest single star to our own Sun. The Planet Finder Spectrograph on Carnegie’s Magellan II telescope was integral to the discovery, which is published in Nature.

Just six light-years from Earth, Barnard’s star is our fourth-closest neighboring star overall, after Alpha Centauri’s triple-star system. It is smaller and older than our Sun and among the least-active known red dwarfs.

To find this cold Super-Earth, the team—which included Carnegie’s Paul Butler, Johanna Teske, Jeff Crane, Steve

Mars mosaic courtesy of NASA
October 31, 2018

Washington, DC—Mars’ organic carbon may have originated from a series of electrochemical reactions between briny liquids and volcanic minerals, according to new analyses of three Martian meteorites from a team led by Carnegie’s Andrew Steele published in Science Advances.

The group’s analysis of a trio of Martian meteorites that fell to Earth—Tissint, Nakhla, and NWA 1950—showed that they contain an inventory of organic carbon that is remarkably consistent with the organic carbon compounds detected by the Mars Science Laboratory’s rover missions.

In 2012, Steele led a team that determined the organic carbon found in 10 Martian

NASEM astrobiology briefing artwork
October 10, 2018

Washington, DC—NASA should incorporate astrobiology into all stages of future exploratory missions, according to a new report from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine presented Wednesday by the chair of the study, University of Toronto’s Barbara Sherwood Lollar, and by Carnegie’s Alan Boss, one of the report’s 17 expert authors.

Astrobiology addresses the factors that allowed life to originate and develop in the universe and investigates whether life exists on planets other than Earth. This highly interdisciplinary and constantly adapting field incorporates expertise in biology, chemistry, geology, planetary science, and physics.

October 4, 2018

Sarah Stewart was awarded a prestigious MacArthur fellowship for: “Advancing new theories of how celestial collisions give birth to planets and their natural satellites, such as the Earth and Moon.”

Stewart is currently a professor in the Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences at the University of California Davis. Her group studies the formation and evolution of planetary bodies by using shock wave experiments to measure the properties of materials and conducting simulations of planetary processes. She was a Carnegie postdoctoral fellow from 2002 to 2003. For more see Macfound.org
 

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Established in June of 2016 with a generous gift of $50,000 from Marilyn Fogel and Christopher Swarth, the Marilyn Fogel Endowed Fund for Internships will provide support for “very young budding scientists” who wish to “spend a summer getting their feet wet in research for the very first time.”  The income from this endowed fund will enable high school students and undergraduates to conduct mentored internships at Carnegie’s Geophysical Laboratory and Department of Terrestrial Magnetism in Washington, DC starting in the summer of 2017.

Marilyn Fogel’s thirty-three year career at Carnegie’s Geophysical Laboratory (1977-2013), followed

Andrew Steele joins the Rosetta team as a co-investigator working on the COSAC instrument aboard the Philae lander (Fred Goesmann Max Planck Institute - PI). On 12 November 2014 the Philae system will be deployed to land on the comet and begin operations. Before this, several analyses of the comet environment are scheduled from an approximate orbit of 10 km from the comet. The COSAC instrument is a Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer that will measure the abundance of volatile gases and organic carbon compounds in the coma and solid samples of the comet.

Carbon plays an unparalleled role in our lives: as the element of life, as the basis of most of society’s energy, as the backbone of most new materials, and as the central focus in efforts to understand Earth’s variable and uncertain climate. Yet in spite of carbon’s importance, scientists remain largely ignorant of the physical, chemical, and biological behavior of many of Earth’s carbon-bearing systems. The Deep Carbon Observatory (DCO) is a global research program to transform our understanding of carbon in Earth. At its heart, DCO is a community of scientists, from biologists to physicists, geoscientists to chemists, and many others whose work crosses these

Carbon plays an unparalleled role in our lives: as the element of life, as the basis of most of society’s energy, as the backbone of most new materials, and as the central focus in efforts to understand Earth’s variable and uncertain climate. Yet in spite of carbon’s importance, scientists remain largely ignorant of the physical, chemical, and biological behavior of many of Earth’s carbon-bearing systems. The Deep Carbon Observatory is a global research program to transform our understanding of carbon in Earth. At its heart, DCO is a community of scientists, from biologists to physicists, geoscientists to chemists, and many others whose work crosses these

The Ludington lab investigates complex ecological dynamics from microbial community interactions using the fruit fly  Drosophila melanogaster. The fruit fly gut carries numerous microbial species, which can be cultured in the lab. The goal is to understand the gut ecology and how it relates to host health, among other questions, by taking advantage of the fast time-scale and ease of studying the fruit fly in controlled experiments. 

Nick Konidaris is a staff scientist at the Carnegie Observatories and Instrument Lead for the SDSS-V Local Volume Mapper (LVM). He works on a broad range of new optical instrumentation projects in astronomy and remote sensing. Nick's projects range from experimental to large workhorse facilities. On the experimental side, he recently began working on a new development platform for the 40-inch Swope telescope at Carnegie's Las Campanas Observatory that will be used to explore and understand the explosive universe.

 Nick and his colleagues at the Department of Global Ecology are leveraging the work on Swope to develop a new airborne spectrograph that will be

Experimental petrologist Michael Walter became director of the Geophysical Laboratory beginning April 1, 2018. His recent research has focused on the period early in Earth’s history, shortly after the planet accreted from the cloud of gas and dust surrounding our young Sun, when the mantle and the core first separated into distinct layers. Current topics of investigation also include the structure and properties of various compounds under the extreme pressures and temperatures found deep inside the planet, and information about the pressure, temperature, and chemical conditions of the mantle that can be gleaned from mineral impurities preserved inside diamonds.

Walter

Guoyin Shen's research interests lie in the quest to establish and to examine models for explaining and controlling the behavior of materials under extreme conditions. His research activities include investigation of phase transformations and melting lines in molecular solids, oxides and metals; polyamorphism in liquids and amorphous materials; new states of matter and their emergent properties under extreme conditions; and the development of enabling high-pressure synchrotron techniques for advancing compression science. 

He obtained a Ph.D. in mineral physics from Uppsala University, Sweden in 1994 and a B.S. in geochemistry from Zhejiang University, China in 1982. For