Baltimore, MD— Nutrition and metabolism are closely linked with reproductive health. Several reproductive disorders including polycystic ovary syndrome, amenorrhea, and ovarian cancer have been linked to malnutrition, diabetes, and obesity. Furthermore, fasting in numerous species can result in...
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  • A Carnegie-based search of nearby galaxies for their oldest stars has uncovered two stars in the Sculptor dwarf galaxy that were born shortly after the galaxy formed, approximately 13 billion years ago. The Sculptor dwarf is a small galaxy that orbits around our own Milky Way, just as the Moon orbits around the Earth. The unusual chemical content of the stars may have originated in a single supernova explosion from the first generation of Sculptor stars.

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    Deputy Principal Investigator on NASA’s MESSENGER mission to Mercury, Carnegie’s Larry Nittler, is playing a leading role in determining the chemical composition of the Solar System’s innermost planet. MESSENGER, led by former Terrestrial Magnetism director Sean Solomon, has been returning a wealth of scientific data since entering obit around Mercury in March 2011 for a yearlong mission. MESSENGER will end its mission April 30, 2015, over three years longer than planned and far surpassing goals.

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A plant's roots grow and spread into the soil, taking up necessary water and minerals. The tip of a plant's root is a place of active cell division followed by cell elongation, with different zones all working together to expand into new depths of the soil. Achieving an optimal root growth rate is critical for plant survival under drought conditions. New work reports the mechanisms that together determine the rate of root growth.

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"Then about a decade ago, Carlson found room for doubt, after comparing Earth rocks and space rocks using better instruments..." Read More

 

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Silicon dioxide, commonly called silica, is one of the most-abundant natural compounds and a major component of the Earth’s crust and mantle.  Silica’s various high-pressure forms make it an often-used study subject for scientists interested in the transition between different chemical phases under extreme conditions, such as those in the deep Earth. A Carnegie-led team was able to discover five new forms of silica under extreme pressures at room temperature.

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Nutrition and metabolism are closely linked with reproductive health. Several reproductive disorders have been linked to malnutrition, diabetes, and obesity. Furthermore, fasting in numerous species can result in decreased fertility. New work from a Carnegie team focuses on the accumulation of triglyceride and a certain kind of steroids called sterols during the development of immature egg cells. The researchers were able to identify an insect steroid hormone that is crucial to both lipid metabolism and egg production in fruit flies. 

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The Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO), developed by GregAsner, is a fixed-wing aircraft that sweeps laser light across the vegetation canopy to image it in brilliant 3-D. The data can determine the location and size of each tree at a resolution of 3.5 feet (1.1 meter), a level of detail that is...
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Fifty years ago, Americans led the world in math and science, claiming some of the most important inventions and technological breakthroughs of the 20th century.  Today, American 15-year-olds rank 25th in math compared to their peers worldwide.  Math for America strives to reclaim America’s...
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In March 2014, a technical support unit (TSU) of ten, headquartered at Global Ecology, had successfully completed a herculean management effort for the 2000-page assessment Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability, including two summaries. They were issued by the United Nations (...
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Astronomy Lecture Series
Monday, April 27, 2015

Black holes remain among the most enigmatic objects in the universe. Using both computer simulations and traditional analytic theory, Dr. Kollmeier is making major discoveries showing how tiny...

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Capital Science Evening Lectures
Thursday, April 30, 2015

Humans have a longer childhood than any other animal—our children are more vulnerable and dependent than other species’ infants. Why is this so? In the last thirty years there has been a...

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Astronomy Lecture Series
Monday, May 11, 2015

The expanding universe was discovered at Mount Wilson almost 100 years ago. But there is something new! In the past 20 years, astronomers have found that cosmic expansion is speeding up, driven by...

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The mouse is a traditional model organism for understanding physiological processes in humans. Chen-Ming Fan uses the mouse to study the underlying mechanisms involved in human development and genetic diseases. He concentrates on identifying and understanding the signals that direct the...
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It’s common knowledge that light is essential for plants to perform photosynthesis—converting light energy into chemical energy by transforming carbon dioxide and water into sugars for fuel. Plants maximize the process by bending toward the light in a process called phototropism, which is...
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Viktor Struzhkin develops new techniques for high-pressure experiments to measure transport and magnetic properties of materials to understand aspects of geophysics, planetary science, and condensed-matter physics. Among his goals are to detect the transition of hydrogen into a high-temperature...
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April 17, 2015

Ken Caldeira warns against the use of geoengineering, calls research into it an "act of desperation on the part of scientists." Read more

April 16, 2015
"Then about a decade ago, Carlson found room for doubt, after comparing Earth rocks and space rocks using better instruments..." Read More

 

April 10, 2015

Washington, DC— Educators from the Carnegie Academy for Science Education (CASE), a division of the Carnegie Institution for Science, joined the District of Columbia Office of the State Superintendent of Education (OSSE) in welcoming partners of the newly launched DC STEM Network to Carnegie’s Washington headquarters last week to strategize together and inspire each other about building a STEM education infrastructure in the city. STEM education is the combination the discrete subjects (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) and the skillset that goes along with their application such as problem solving, critical thinking, and analysis.

“It’s really a delight to be

April 9, 2015

Stanford, CA—A plant's roots grow and spread into the soil, taking up necessary water and minerals. The tip of a plant's root is a place of active cell division followed by cell elongation, with different zones dedicated to different functions, all working together to expand into new depths of the soil. Achieving an optimal root growth rate is critical for plant survival under drought conditions, as well as for maximizing resource allocation to the important plant parts such as the fruits and seeds. This is why root-expansion mechanisms are of great interest to scientists and to those interested in improving agricultural yields.

On a cellular level, as the tips of a plant’s roots

April 27, 2015

Black holes remain among the most enigmatic objects in the universe. Using both computer simulations and traditional analytic theory, Dr. Kollmeier is making major discoveries showing how tiny fluctuations in density in the early universe have become the galaxies and black holes that we see after 14 billion years of cosmic evolution. In this Lecture, Dr. Kollmeier will review our basic knowledge of black holes and explore outstanding mysteries
regarding their formation and structure.

April 30, 2015

Humans have a longer childhood than any other animal—our children are more vulnerable and dependent than other species’ infants. Why is this so? In the last thirty years there has been a revolution in our scientific understanding of infants and young children. Dr. Gopnik will show that even the youngest babies have learning abilities that are more powerful than those of the smartest scientists and most advanced computers.

Dr. Alison Gopnik, University of California Berkeley, Department of Psychology

May 11, 2015

The expanding universe was discovered at Mount Wilson almost 100 years ago. But there is something new! In the past 20 years, astronomers have found that cosmic expansion is speeding up, driven by a mysterious “dark energy” whose nature we do not understand. Dr. Kirshner, one of today”s preeminent astrophysicists, is the recipient of many prestigious awards, including the 2014 Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics (sponsored by Google, among others), as well as the 2014 James Craig Watson Medal of the National Acad- emy of Sciences for “service to astronomy.”

Dr. Robert P. Kirshner, Clowes Professor of Science, Harvard University

May 14, 2015

Modern science began with Copernicus speculating that the Earth is a planet and that all the planets orbit the Sun. Bruno followed up by speculating that the Sun is a star, that other stars have planets, and other planets are inhabited by life. For this and other heresies, Bruno was burned at the stake in a public square in Rome in 1600. Astronomy and extrasolar planets were a really hot field at the time.

Over the past 20 years more than a thousand extrasolar planets have been found, first from ground-based precision Doppler surveys, and more recently by the Kepler space mission. We have concentrated on building precise Doppler systems to survey the nearest stars. Our systems at

Carnegie engages in a variety of advanced educational programs across the country. For information about opportunities in the various disciplines, go to the links below:

Astronomy- Pasadena, California postdoctoral training, graduate student training; Washington, D.C. postdoctoral training Earth and Planetary Science- Washington, D.C. postdoctoral training Genetics/Developmental Biology- Baltimore, MD postdoctoral training, Graduate student training Globoal Ecology- Stanford, California, postdoctoral training Matter at Extreme States, Materials Science- Washington, D.C. postdoctoral training, summer scholars Plant Science- Stanford, California, postdoctoral training, graduate Studies

Carbon plays an unparalleled role in our lives: as the element of life, as the basis of most of society’s energy, as the backbone of most new materials, and as the central focus in efforts to understand Earth’s variable and uncertain climate. Yet in spite of carbon’s importance, scientists remain largely ignorant of the physical, chemical, and biological behavior of many of Earth’s carbon-bearing systems. The Deep Carbon Observatory is a global research program to transform our understanding of carbon in Earth. At its heart, DCO is a community of scientists, from biologists to physicists, geoscientists to chemists, and many others whose work crosses these disciplinary lines, forging a

The Anglo-Australian Planet Search (AAPS) is a long-term program being carried out on the 3.9-meter Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) to search for giant planets around more than 240 nearby Sun-like stars. The team, including Carnegie scientists,  uses the "Doppler wobble" technique to search for these otherwise invisible extra-solar planets, and achieve the highest long-term precision demonstrated by any Southern Hemisphere planet search.

Carnegie scientists participate in NASA's Kepler missions, the first mission capable of finding Earth-size planets around other stars. The centuries-old quest for other worlds like our Earth has been rejuvenated by the intense excitement and popular interest surrounding the discovery of hundreds of planets orbiting other stars. There is now clear evidence for substantial numbers of three types of exoplanets; gas giants, hot-super-Earths in short period orbits, and ice giants.

The challenge now is to find terrestrial planets (those one half to twice the size of the Earth), especially those in the habitable zone of their stars where liquid water and possibly life might exist. Image

Juna Kollmeier’s research is an unusual combination—she is as observationally-oriented theorist making predictions that can be compared to current and future observations. Her primary focus is on the emergence of structure in the universe. She combines cosmological hydrodynamic simulations and analytic theory to figure out how the tiny fluctuations in density that were present when the universe was only 300 thousand years old, become the galaxies and black holes that we see now, after 14 billion years of cosmic evolution. 

 She has a three-pronged approach to unravelling the mysteries of the universe. On the largest scales, she studies the intergalactic medium (IGM)—the tenuous

Roiling cauldrons of liquid-laden material flow within Earth’s rocky interior. Understanding how this matter moves and changes is essential to deciphering Earth’s formation and evolution as well as the processes that create seismic activity, such as earthquakes and volcanoes. Bjørn Mysen probes this hidden environment in the laboratory and, based on his results, models can help explain what goes on in this remote realm.

Mysen investigates changes in the atomic properties of molten silicates at high pressures and temperatures that pervade the interior Earth. Silicates comprise most of the Earth's crust and mantle. He uses devices, such as the diamond anvil cell, to subject melts

Joe Berry has been a Carnegie investigator since 1972. He has developed powerful tools to measure local and regional exchanges of carbon over spaces of up to thousands of square miles. He uses information at the plant scale to extrapolate the carbon balance at regional and continental scales.

According to ISI's Web of Science, two of Joe Berry's papers passed extremely high, rarefied citation milestones. The 1980  paper “A biochemical model of photosynthetic CO2 assimilation in leaves of C3 species,” has had over 1,500th citations. His 1982 paper “On the relationship between carbon isotope discrimination and the intercellular carbon dioxide concentration in leaves” passed its 1,

Eric Persson heads a group that develops and uses telescope instrumentation to exploit new near-infrared (IR) imaging array detectors. The team built a wide-field survey camera for the du Pont 2.5-meter telescope at Carnegie’s Las Campanas Observatory in Chile, and the first of two cameras for the Magellan Baade telescope. Magellan consortium astronomers use the Baade camera for various IR-imaging projects, while his group focuses on distant galaxies and supernovae.

Until recently, it was difficult to find large numbers of galaxies at near-IR wavelengths. But significant advances in the size of IR detector arrays have allowed the Persson group to survey one-square degree of sky.