b'The goal is to facilitate a transitionto a sensible,near-zero emissionenergy system.energy transport from the middle of the atmosphereopenness and transparency so that others may make to the wind turbines on Earths surface. This will helpbetter decisions.lead to better planning and siting decisions for future wind farms. In addition to geophysical modeling, the Carnegie Energy Innovation group explores energy system29Geophysical scientists are trained to study complexmodeling, to study the architectures of different global systems using first-principles simulations,zero-emission energy systems; economic modeling, which begin with fundamental laws and conservationto understand the economic impact of different equations, then numerically build on them to findsolutions; and energy/climate related analysis that solutions. This approach is different from the morecan show, for instance, how the same changes in common device-level energy engineering approach.different locations can have very different climate Carnegies independence allows the researchers toeffects. All have the ultimate goal of achieving a focus on the fundamentals of century-scale energyzero-emission energy system through thoughtful and system transitions and share results with completerigorous analyses. 1.000.98Normalized wind speed [-]0.960.940.920.900.880.860.841.0Individual wind turbines produce a wind shadow 0.9 in their wake. Recently, through Carnegie Energy Normalized wind speed [-]Innovation project modeling, it was found that wind 0.8 farmslarge collections of wind turbinesalso leave a wind shadow that can be detected more than 100 miles away. The darker purples in the 0.7 image of a turbine farm above indicate the slower wind speeds. These turbine farms create a wind 0.6 shadow. The graph at left shows how the winds slow down at different distances from farms with 1km downstream varying numbers of turbine rows. 0.5 10km downstream Images courtesy Enrico Antonini, Carnegie Institution for Science50km downstream0.4 02040 60 80 100Wind farm size [# rows]'