b'Improving Volcano MonitoringEARTH and Eruption ForecastingThe goal is toreduce threatstocommunities near active volcanoesN ational Science Foundation postdoctoral fellow Kathleen McKee, along with staff scientists Diana Roman, Hlne Le Mvel, and collaborators, is for the first time establishing a quantitative link between precursory activity and volcanic explosions. Specifically, the team is investigating how precursory seismic signals from gas movement in the subsurface and acoustic signals from explosions are linked by conducting an experiment at Stromboli Volcano in Italy. The goal is to reduce threats to communities near active volcanoes by developing an understanding of how observations such as tiltThe Carnegie team, with colleagues, conducted experiments signals could be linked to explosion size.at Stromboli Volcano, Italy, in May 2018. Five active vents that intermittently produce degassing plumes are shown at its summit (above).Prior to erupting, volcanoes often inflate. That is,Images courtesy Hlne Le Mvel, Carnegie Institution for Scienceas magma and gas rise to the shallow subsurface from depth, they expand due to the decrease inMcKees expertise is in volcano seismology and pressure, in turn pushing on the surrounding rockinfrasoundlow frequency sound produced by and deforming the volcanic edifice. This deformationeruptive activity, such as explosions or gas jetting, can happen over decades or quickly, over hundredsaccelerating the atmosphere. Her goal is to connect of seconds. Volcanic inflation is measured usinggeophysical measurements of subsurface to satellites, GPS, tiltmeters, and seismometers tosubaerial gas volume changes through the volcanic quantify volume change. The scientists deployed asystem. Shallow subsurface changes are measured variety of ground instruments including the recentlywith seismometers and tiltmeters and recorded as developed Carnegie Quick Deploy Box seismometers,very-long-period seismic and tilt signals. Subaerial infrasound sensors, a MultiGAS instrument,changes, explosions, are measured with specialized gravimeter, and more to quantify the changesmicrophones sensitive to infrasound. The team induced by volcanic activity. wanted to link McKees volcanic infrasound'