Monday, May 9, 2011 - 3:26pm
Consumption, carbon emissions, and international trade
Accurately calculating the amount of carbon dioxide emitted in the process of producing and bringing products to our doorsteps is nearly impossible, but still a worthwhile effort, two Carnegie researchers claim in a commentary published online this week. The Global Ecology department’s Ken Caldeira and Steven Davis commend the work of industrial ecologist Glen Peters and colleagues, published in the same journal late last month, and use that team’s data to do additional analysis on the disparity between emissions and consumption in different parts of the world.
Wednesday, April 6, 2011 - 12:57pm
Under pressure: germanium
Although its name may make many people think of flowers, the element germanium is part of a frequently studied group of elements, called IVa, which could have applications for next-generation computer architecture as well as implications for fundamental condensed matter physics. New research reveals details of the element’s transitions under pressure. Their results show extraordinary agreement with the predictions of modern condensed matter theory.
Tuesday, March 4, 2008 - 8:15am
Carnegie’s Russell Hemley Elected to Royal Society of Edinburgh
The Royal Society of Edinburgh (RSE) announced March 4th that Russell Hemley, director of Carnegie’s Geophysical Laboratory, has been elected to Corresponding Fellowship of the Royal Society of Edinburgh—Scotland’s national academy of science and letters.
Wednesday, March 21, 2012 - 8:48am
Mercury’s Surprising Core and Landscape Curiosities
As reported in one of two papers published today on Science Express, scientists have found that Mercury’s core, already suspected to occupy a greater fraction of the planet's interior than do the cores of Earth, Venus, or Mars, is even larger than anticipated. The companion paper shows that the elevation ranges on Mercury are much smaller than on Mars or the Moon and indicates that there have been large-scale changes to Mercury’s topography since early in the planet’s geological history.
Thursday, June 19, 2008 - 12:27pm
New web resource to improve crop engineering
The Carnegie Institution’s Department of Plant Biology today announced the launch of a new web-based resource that promises to help researchers around the world meet increasing demands for food production, animal feed, biofuels, industrial materials, and new medicines. It is the Plant Metabolic Network (PMN) at http://www.plantcyc.org/
Thursday, April 12, 2012 - 5:12pm
Probing hydrogen under extreme conditions
How hydrogen--the most abundant element in the cosmos--responds to extremes of pressure and temperature is one of the major challenges in modern physical science. Moreover, knowledge gleaned from experiments using hydrogen as a testing ground on the nature of chemical bonding can fundamentally expand our understanding of matter. New work from Carnegie scientists has enabled researchers to examine hydrogen under pressures never before possible.
Sunday, May 29, 2005 - 11:00pm
Revolutionary nanotechnology illuminates brain cells at work
Until now it has been impossible to accurately measure the levels of important chemicals in living brain cells in real time and at the level of a single cell. Scientists at the Carnegie Institution’s Department of Plant Biology and Stanford University are the first to overcome this obstacle by successfully applying genetic nanotechnology using molecular sensors to view changes in brain chemical levels...
Tuesday, September 18, 2007 - 11:00pm
CO2 emissions could violate EPA ocean-quality standards within decades
In a commentary in the September 25, 2007, issue of the Geophysical Research Letters (GRL), a large team of scientists state that human-induced carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions will alter ocean chemistry to the point where it will violate U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Quality Criteria  by mid-century if emissions are not dramatically curtailed now.
Monday, October 18, 2010 - 2:16pm
Breakthrough in Nanocrystals Growth
For the first time scientists, including researchers with the Geophysical Lab, have been able to watch nanoparticles grow from the earliest stages of their formation. Nanoparticles are the foundation of nanotechnology and their performance depends on their structure, composition, and size. Researchers will now be able to develop ways to control conditions under which they are grown. The breakthrough will affect a wide range of applications including solar-cell technology and chemical and biological sensors.
Tuesday, September 15, 2009 - 6:18am
Carnegie’s Christopher Field To Receive Heinz Award
Palo Alto, CA— Christopher Field, director of the Carnegie Institution’s Department of Global Ecology, has been awarded a prestigious Heinz award. The awards were established by Teresa Heinz in 1993 to honor her late husband, U.S. Senator John Heinz, by recognizing “extraordinary achievements of individuals in the areas of greatest importance to him.”
Friday, August 9, 2013 - 6:20am
Deep Earth Heat Surprise
Researchers, including Alex Goncharov, have for the first time experimentally mimicked the pressure conditions of Earths’ deep mantle to measure thermal conductivity using a new measurement technique on the mantle material magnesium oxide (MgO). They found that heat transfer is lower than other predictions, with total heat flow across the Earth of about 10.4 terawatts, about 60 % of the power used today by civilization. They also found that conductivity has less dependence on pressure conditions than predicted.
Wednesday, September 3, 2008 - 12:42pm
Putting the Squeeze on Nitrogen for High Energy Materials
Nitrogen atoms like to travel in pairs, hooked together by one of the strongest chemical bonds in nature. By subjecting nitrogen molecules to extreme temperatures and pressures scientists are getting a new understanding of not only nitrogen but other similar molecules, including hydrogen. Hypothesized nitrogen polymers could form materials with higher energy content than any known non-nuclear material.
Wednesday, February 6, 2013 - 1:28pm
Forecasting a Supernova Explosion
Type II supernovae are formed when massive stars collapse, initiating giant explosions. It is thought that stars emit a burst of mass as a precursor to the supernova explosion. If this process were better understood, it could be used to predict and study supernova events in their earliest stages. New observations from a team of astronomers including Carnegie's Mansi Kasliwal show a remarkable mass-loss event about a month before the explosion of a type IIn supernova.
Thursday, September 4, 2008 - 7:09am
Future of biology rests in harnessing data avalanche
Like most sciences, biology is inundated with data. However, researchers, including Sue Rhee at Plant Biology, warn in a Nature feature that the avalanche of biological information is at the point where the discipline may be unable to reach its full potential without improvements for curating data into on-line databases. The piece outlines specific remedies to harness the information overload.
Monday, September 10, 2012 - 1:20pm
Forest mortality and climate change: The big picture
Over the past two decades, extensive forest death triggered by hot and dry climatic conditions has been documented on every continent except Antarctica. Forest mortality due to drought and heat stress is expected to increase due to climate change. Although research has focused on isolated incidents of forest mortality, little is known about the potential effects of widespread forest die-offs. A new analysis of the current literature on this topic by Carnegie’s William and Leander Anderegg is published September 9 in Nature Climate Change.
Friday, March 23, 2012 - 12:47pm
Mountaintop Blasting to Mine the Sky with the Giant Magellan Telescope
Astronomers began to blast 3 million cubic feet of rock from a mountaintop in the Chilean Andes today to prepare for the world’s largest telescope at the Carnegie Institution’s Las Campanas Observatory. Over the next few months, more than 70 controlled blasts will break up the rock while leaving a solid bedrock foundation for the telescope and its precision scientific instruments.More information about the telescope is here
Monday, July 29, 2013 - 2:55pm
How Does Hydrogen Metallize?
Hydrogen is deceptively simple. It has only a single electron per atom, but it powers the sun and forms the majority of the observed universe. As such, it is naturally exposed to the entire range of pressures and temperatures available in the whole cosmos. But researchers are still struggling to understand even basic aspects of its various forms under high-pressure conditions. New work from a team at Carnegie’s Geophysical Laboratory makes significant additions to our understanding of this vital element’s high-pressure behavior.
Tuesday, February 17, 2009 - 1:37pm
Exploring Planets in Distant Space and Deep Interiors
In recent years researchers have found hundreds of new planets beyond our solar system, raising questions about the origins and properties of these exotic worlds—not to mention the possible presence of life. Speaking at a symposium titled “The Origin and Evolution of Planets” held at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, two Carnegie Institution scientists presented their perspectives on the new era of planetary exploration.
Wednesday, December 19, 2012 - 11:08am
Closest Sun-like star may have planets
An international team of scientists, including Carnegie’s Paul Butler, has discovered that Tau Ceti, one of the closest and most Sun-like stars, may have five planets. At a distance of twelve light years and visible with a naked eye in the evening sky, Tau Ceti is the closest single star with the same spectral classification as our Sun. Its five planets are estimated to have masses between two and six times the mass of the Earth--making it the lowest-mass planetary system yet detected.
Friday, January 18, 2013 - 11:32am
Studying Ancient Earth’s Geochemistry
Researchers still have much to learn about the volcanism that shaped our planet’s early history. New evidence from a team led by Carnegie’s Frances Jenner demonstrates that some of the tectonic processes driving volcanic activity, such as those taking place today, were occurring as early as 3.8 billion years ago.